... Cultivation suitability, grape variety characteristics and taste profiles of selected red PIWI grape varieties.
DEVELOPMENT OF PIWI BREEDS
The first generation of PIWI vines were grown around 1900 in Colmar, among other places bred (Ambrosi, 2011). This first generation consisted of direct crossings of American/Asian wild vines and European wine grapes. Breeding goal was not only to reduce mildew control measures, but also to protect against phylloxera. As is well known, chemical plant protection and the planting of grafted vines have become established. Breeders like Kuhlmann crossed varieties like Léon Millot or Marechal Foch. During Nazism, these vines were mostly due to "non-Aryan origin" (American and Asian genetic material). forcibly cleared. After the Second World War, the vines, including in France, were used to produce brandy (Armagnac) until the 1960s. Further vineyards were cleared as a result of support programs initiated in France. Today, grape varieties of the first PIWI generation are primarily found in Switzerland, Austria and a few companies in southern Germany.